Rather it focuses on factors that are most relevant to prevention efforts. This section will first consider factors within the family that have been found to be associated with the development of delinquency and then consider peer influences on delinquent behavior.
Much of this behavior occurs in relatively unstable pairings or small groups, not in organized gangs Klein, ; Reiss, Antisocial youth also tend to show cognitive deficits in the areas of executive functions 1 Moffitt et al. Children of antisocial parents are at heightened risk for aggressive, antisocial, and delinquent behavior e.
Similarly, in the Denver Youth Survey, serious offenders had the highest prevalence and frequency of use of alcohol and marijuana of all youth in the study. An association between perinatal risk factors and violent offending is particularly strong among offenders whose parents are mentally ill or very poor Raine et al.
Tolerance for gang activities varies by community Curry and Spergel, ; Horowitz, Clearly, genes affect biological development, but there is no biological development without environmental input.
It is evident that intervenors need to give serious attention to the composition of treatment groups, especially in school settings. This can lead to child sex tourism, when a sexual predator will go to less developed countries and prey on young boys and girls.
Few studies, however, have assessed cognitive functioning during the preschool years or followed the children into adolescence to understand the long-term link between early cognitive deficits and juvenile delinquency.