If an eBook is available, you'll see the option to purchase it on the book page. Asthma Asthma, a long-term inflammatory condition of the conducting airways of the lungs, leads to cough, wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.
Less convincing evidence exists for an association between long-term exposure to O3 and impacts on human health. The strongest evidence for effects on health is associated with fine particles PM 2.
Ground level, or tropospheric O3, is not emitted directly into the air but is created by photochemical reactions involving the precursor pollutants NOx and volatile organic compounds VOCs.These landmark changes in policy have impacted cannabis use patterns and perceived levels of risk. Published online: 03 December The Ministry of Health convenes a technical advisory committee, the Interagency Committee on the Health Effects of Non-ionising Fields the Committee , to monitor and review research on the health effects of electromagnetic fields. There are a number of sources of indoor air pollutants that can harm health including: CO , NO2 and particulates from domestic appliances boilers, heaters, fires, stoves and ovens , which burn carbon containing fuels coal, coke, gas, kerosene and wood VOCs from cleaning and personal care products, building materials and household consumer products paints, carpets, laminate furniture, cleaning products, air fresheners, polishing environmental tobacco smoke ETS and second hand smoke SHS radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that comes from the ground as the earth decays. PHE recommends that evaluation is embedded in the design and costing of all future national and local interventions, from their outset, to systematically gather evidence of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness to inform future policy development. Less convincing evidence exists for an association between long-term exposure to O3 and impacts on human health. These inequalities can also affect people throughout their lives, from the prenatal stage through to old age, particularly as deprived communities often have limited opportunities to improve their environment. The eBook is optimized for e-reader devices and apps, which means that it offers a much better digital reading experience than a PDF, including resizable text and interactive features when available. Conditions associated with exposure to PM 2. The effects of exposure to O3 are predominantly respiratory, but adverse effects on the cardiovascular system have also been reported. Why is an eBook better than a PDF? Carbon monoxide CO CO is a colourless, odourless and tasteless gas, produced when fuels such as gas, oil, coal and wood burn without enough oxygen.
Conditions associated with exposure to PM 2. Multiple interventions, each producing a small benefit, can act cumulatively to produce significant overall benefits. Particulate matter PM PM is a generic term used to describe a complex mixture of solid and liquid particles of varying size, shape, and composition.
Scale of the problem Air pollution has a significant effect on public health, and poor air quality is the largest environmental risk to public health in the UK. It has been unclear whether these effects are caused by NO2 itself, or by other pollutants emitted at the same time by sources such as road traffic.
Due to the increased use of gas and electricity, coal-burning is now relatively uncommon, and levels of SO2 have steadily declined over the last 50 years. Early childhood development: pregnancy, the developing foetus and infancy Pregnancy and early childhood are critical times for the formation and maturation of body systems, and the time during which the most rapid changes take place.
But some sensitive people may suffer irritation of the eyes, nose and throat, headaches and dizziness if they are exposed.The 3 main conditions associated with air pollution are respiratory conditions such as asthma , cardiovascular disease CVD , and lung cancer, and there is emerging evidence for associations with dementia, low birth weight and Type 2 diabetes. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives. Applicable discounts will be extended. There is an increased risk of lung cancer if exposed to high levels of radon for a long time, as it is the second highest cause of lung cancer after smoking. An uncorrected copy, or prepublication, is an uncorrected proof of the book. Short-term exposure over hours or days to elevated levels of air pollution can also cause a range of health impacts, including effects on lung function, exacerbation of asthma, increases in respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions and mortality. Multiple interventions, each producing a small benefit, can act cumulatively to produce significant overall benefits. Asthma Asthma, a long-term inflammatory condition of the conducting airways of the lungs, leads to cough, wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Conditions associated with exposure to PM 2. Lung function in adulthood slowly declines with age, and there is emerging evidence that air pollution and living near a busy road accelerate this decline, for both adults and older people. Due to the increased use of gas and electricity, coal-burning is now relatively uncommon, and levels of SO2 have steadily declined over the last 50 years. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids provides a comprehensive review of scientific evidence related to the health effects and potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis. Local government Local authorities have a statutory role in assessing and improving local air quality, and the cumulative effects of this local action are significant. The strongest associations have been observed for fine PM , which is associated with both cardiovascular morbidity and a reduction in life expectancy as a result of increased death from CVD and respiratory disease and lung cancer.
Particulate matter PM and nitrogen dioxide NO2 are both major components of urban air pollution. Why is an eBook better than a PDF?