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The regional issues include relatively high rural human populations intermingling with forested systems; air-quality concerns related to the use of fire for fuels management; several ecosystems historically disturbed by fire now losing fire-dependent biodiversity after decades of fire exclusion; and some fire dependent ecosystems inhabited by citizens largely unfamiliar with fire risk and frequent disturbance. Fire Research Fire Research Recognizing the scale and complexity of wildland fires, which affects millions of acres each year, the Forest Service has a network of fire labs and research stations across the country. Meter cubes were used in excavation starting in , and Loci H through O, established between and , were mapped to within 1 m 3 vertical and horizontal provenience. Although the original excavation catalogue from Locality 1, as well as a significant number of fossils and stone artifacts, were lost during World War II, catalogue numbers on the many surviving specimens can be used to locate fossils and artifacts within the three-dimensional grid provided in this paper. Locus G records the close stratigraphic and horizontal association of stone artifacts with Homo erectus and other vertebrate skeletal elements, an association that is seen at other loci as well. Loci A through G, established between and , were excavated in the northernmost part of Locality 1 by unmapped quarrying, but their stratigraphic levels were recorded. Forest Service fire scientists develop knowledge and tools that help reduce the negative impacts of fire while enhancing its beneficial effects for society and the environment. Loci contained skeletal elements of Homo erectus individuals scattered over areas of the cave floor of up to 9 m in diameter. Mapping and taphonomic analysis of the Homo erectus loci at Locality 1 Zhoukoudian, China From a detailed analysis of published and unpublished sources, we constructed a digitized three-dimensional, stratigraphically-controlled excavation grid of Zhoukoudian Locality 1 in order to assess the spatial relationships of the Layer 4 of the excavation contains equid cranial bone previously interpreted to have been burned while fresh. We here document that Locus B Homo erectus, including Skull I, is stratigraphically associated with this evidence, but at some m distance. Even though the presence of wood-stoked fires and hearths is not supported by geochemical results, evidence of fire at Locality 1 in the form of burned bone is confirmed. Carbon on all the Homo erectus fossils from Locus G, a circumscribed area of 1-meter diameter, earlier taken to indicate burning, cooking, and cannibalism, is here interpreted as detrital carbon deposited under water, perhaps the result of hyaenid caching behavior. Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory The Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory in Montana, part of the Rocky Mountain Research Station , conducts research into the fundamentals of fire behavior, extensive modeling of fire behavior, studies of soil heating, determination of fire effects and ecosystem response to fire, estimation of fire danger, as well as measurements of smoke emissions, dispersion, and chemical content. SDTDC was created to standardize fire equipment and to solve fire equipment safety problems.

Meter cubes were used in excavation starting inand Loci H through O, established between andwere mapped to within 1 m 3 vertical and horizontal provenience. NASA also shares videos to raise awareness of the benefits or harm caused by fire, information on air quality changes due to fires, and more.

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Loci contained skeletal elements of Homo erectus individuals scattered over areas of the cave floor of up to 9 m in diameter. Forest Service experts work with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA , which provides satellite imagery and other resources to assist the Forest Service in fighting fires and preventing future ones. Layer 4 of the excavation contains equid cranial bone previously interpreted to have been burned while fresh. Mapping and taphonomic analysis of the Homo erectus loci at Locality 1 Zhoukoudian, China From a detailed analysis of published and unpublished sources, we constructed a digitized three-dimensional, stratigraphically-controlled excavation grid of Zhoukoudian Locality 1 in order to assess the spatial relationships of the Meter cubes were used in excavation starting in , and Loci H through O, established between and , were mapped to within 1 m 3 vertical and horizontal provenience. SDTDC was created to standardize fire equipment and to solve fire equipment safety problems. Contextual relationships of fossil skeletal elements, relationships of carnivore damage and stone tool cutmarks on bone, and evidence of the burning of fresh bone associated with Homo erectus and stone tools support a model of transient hominid scavenging aided by the use of fire at the large hyenid den that became Zhoukoudian Locality 1. Locus G records the close stratigraphic and horizontal association of stone artifacts with Homo erectus and other vertebrate skeletal elements, an association that is seen at other loci as well. We could localize Loci A through G on the grid system by utilizing locations of remaining walls, stratigraphic sections, excavation reports, excavation maps, and photographs. All 15 fossil Homo erectus loci were mapped on the grid. Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory The Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory in Montana, part of the Rocky Mountain Research Station , conducts research into the fundamentals of fire behavior, extensive modeling of fire behavior, studies of soil heating, determination of fire effects and ecosystem response to fire, estimation of fire danger, as well as measurements of smoke emissions, dispersion, and chemical content. We here document that Locus B Homo erectus, including Skull I, is stratigraphically associated with this evidence, but at some m distance. The California labs in Riverside, Redding and Davis along with the lab in Hilo, Hawaii, study topics such as wildfire monitoring and prediction, global fire impacts, forecasting fire weather, managing fire and fuels, fire effects and watershed response. Carbon on all the Homo erectus fossils from Locus G, a circumscribed area of 1-meter diameter, earlier taken to indicate burning, cooking, and cannibalism, is here interpreted as detrital carbon deposited under water, perhaps the result of hyaenid caching behavior. Fire Research Fire Research Recognizing the scale and complexity of wildland fires, which affects millions of acres each year, the Forest Service has a network of fire labs and research stations across the country.

All 15 fossil Homo erectus loci were mapped on the grid. Virtually all of the remaining Homo erectus skeletal assemblage shows breakage consistent with this taphonomic pattern of fragmentation.

Layer 4 of the excavation contains equid cranial bone previously interpreted to have been burned while fresh. Bioturbation by digging carnivores is the most likely explanation for a fragment of Homo erectus Skull XI discovered 1 m below its other conjoined portions in Locus L.

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SDTDC was created to standardize fire equipment and to solve fire equipment safety problems. Even though the presence of wood-stoked fires and hearths is not supported by geochemical results, evidence of fire at Locality 1 in the form of burned bone is confirmed.

Mapping and taphonomic analysis of the Homo erectus loci at Locality 1 Zhoukoudian, China From a detailed analysis of published and unpublished sources, we constructed a digitized three-dimensional, stratigraphically-controlled excavation grid of Zhoukoudian Locality 1 in order to assess the spatial relationships of the Related Content.

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Loci contained skeletal elements of Homo erectus individuals scattered over areas of the cave floor of up to 9 m in diameter. Loci A through G, established between andwere excavated in the northernmost part of Locality 1 by unmapped quarrying, but their stratigraphic levels were recorded.

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Other Resources The Forest Service works with NASA to deliver state-of-the-art technology, fire imagery, and tools to help firefighters battle, prevent and protect people from wildfire.

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